The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) can help measure how much fear and avoidance are affecting a patient with low back pain. This can help identify those patients for whom psychosocial interventions may be beneficial.
• minimal scale scores: 0
• maximum scale 1 score: 42 (7 items)
• maximum scale 2 score: 24 (4 items)
• The higher the scale scores the greater the degree of fear and avoidance beliefs shown by the patient.
To assess symptoms and severity of low back pain in terms of disablement and the degree to which back or leg pain impacts functional activities.
For each section the total possible score is 5: if the first statement is marked the section score = 0; if the last statement is marked, it = 5. If all 10 sections are completed the score is calculated as follows: Example: 16 (total scored) 50 (total possible score) x 100 = 32% If one section is missed or not applicable the score is calculated: 16 (total scored) 45 (total possible score) x 100 = 35.5% Minimum detectable change (90% confidence): 10% points (change of less than this may be attributable to error in the measurement)
The Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) is a unidimensional measure of pain intensity in adults, Including those with chronic pain.
To assess pain, stiffness, and physical function in patients with hip and / or knee osteoarthritis (OA)
The WOMAC consists of 24 items divided into 3 subscales: Pain (5 items): during walking, using stairs, in bed, sitting or lying, and standing Stiffness (2 items): after first waking and later in the day Physical Function (17 items): stair use, rising from sitting, standing, bending, walking, getting in / out of a car, shopping, putting on / taking off socks, rising from bed, lying in bed, getting in / out of bath, sitting, getting on / off toilet, heavy household duties, light household duties .
The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was developed to measure balance among older people with impairment in balance function by assessing the performance of functional tasks. It is a valid instrument used for evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions and for quantitative descriptions of function in clinical practice and research.
The individual is instructed to walk a set distance (6 meters, 10 meters, etc). Time is measured while the individual walks the set distance (often the individual is given space to accelerate to his/her preferred walking speed (this distance is not included when determining speed). The distance covered is divided by the time it took the individual to walk that distance.
Assesses a patient's stability by measuring the maximum distance an individual can reach forward while standing in a fixed position. The modified version of the FRT, requires the individual to sit in a fixed position.
It was published by Mary Tinetti (Yale University) to assess the gait and balance in older adults. It is therefore also called: performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA). Besides giving information on maneuverability, it also is a very good indicator of the fall risk of the tested person.
This test requires static and dynamic balance to assess the patient’s mobility. It is mainly used in older
populations. It is also used to determine the fall risks and measures the progress of balance as well as sit
to stand and gait. More than 14 seconds indicates a higher risk of falling.